ojs-3-doi-guide

1. Introduction

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier, which is a globally unique identifier for digital objects. In the OJS context such objects are journals, journal issues, journal articles, and supplementary files.

DOIs are used as a way to link persistently to an article so that – provided they are kept up to date – any link or reference to a DOI should take a user to where the article currently resides online.

DOIs are useful for things like citation metrics, but also as a way to prevent or combat dead links. For example, a DOI in a citation would provide the user with a persistent link to the object cited.

DOIs are associated with one or several URLs that can be resolved through a persistent URL at a global re-direction domain (http://dx.doi.org/some-doi).

Additional metadata about certain types of digital objects can be stored in the databases of specialized DOI registration agencies. This enables discovery of these objects through the web sites of the registration agencies or their partners (e.g., scientific search engines).

In the OJS context such objects are journals, journal issues, journal articles and supplementary files.

Important:
A DOI is unique. Any article should only have one unique combination of a DOI prefix and suffix. Articles should also, ideally, have only one DOI each.

1. Introduction

Top 3 DOI Registration Agencies



DOIs can be used for a very broad range of digital objects. The only common denominator of such objects is that they have a URL assigned through which they can be located. The DOI system does not impose a single metadata format so, digital objects can have specialized metadata assigned that is specific to the content and format of that object. That’s where DOI registration agencies such as Crossref, mEDRA, and DataCite come in.

These specialized registration agencies accept only certain types of digital objects and define mandatory and optional metadata fields to be delivered when registering a DOI. These agencies require that metadata be delivered in well-defined metadata formats. Usually the agency defines their own metadata format or adapt an existing standard to suit their purpose.

OrganizationDescriptionMembership FeesApplication Page
Crossref is the official DOI link Registration
Agency for the International DOI Foundation.
It was founded as a cooperative effort by journal
publishers to enable cross-publisher citation linking
for online academic journals.
$275/year (Total publishing revenue or expenses up to $1 million USD)
See CrossRef Annual membership fees
https://www.crossref.org/apply/
mEDRA is the multilingual European DOI
Registration Agency.
It registers documents of many European Union
institutions but is also open to private and public
institutions world-wide for registration of serial
publications, serial publication issues and serial
articles. In OJS language these are journal issues,
articles and galleys.
180 € /year (30 DOIs) - 900 € /year (350 DOIs)
See mEDRA Annual membership fees
https://www.medra.org/en/req_account.htm
DataCite is an international not-for-profit association of several research institutions.
DataCite was originally founded to make DOI registration available for primary research data.
Nowadays DataCiteregisters a broad range of publication objects. In the OJS context these are journal issues, articles, galleys and supplementary files.
Membership fees are not published online.
Contact support@datacite.org for more info.
https://www.datacite.org/become.html
1. Introduction

Digital Object Identifier System


DOIs are composed of a prefix and a suffix which are separated by a slash (e.g. “10.1234/cdb2011-01-bio234”). Organizations that want to participate in the DOI system have to apply for an account at a registration agency which will assign a unique DOI prefix to the organization (e.g. “10.1234”). The organization can then assign arbitrary suffixes to their digital objects as long as they guarantee that no suffix will be repeated (e.g. “cdb2011-01-bio234” in the above example). Sometimes several organizations share a DOI prefix to reduce the cost of DOI registration.

Once a prefix has been obtained and a suffix assigned to a publication object, the DOI composed of prefix and suffix has to be registered with the registration agency. The publishing organization formats metadata corresponding to the publication object into the metadata format specific to the registration agency. The resulting XML file will then be transmitted to the registration agency together with the DOI and the corresponding URL of the publication object.

The format and exact registration procedure are different for the registration agencies:

Crossref created their own XML schema for DOI registration known as the Crossref Deposit Schema. You can find extensive documentation on the most recent version of this XSD on their support pages. There are extensions for supplemental metadata such as CrossMark, FundRef, or citations. The schema also supports MathML. Currently, registration for Crossref requires OJS users to export their metadata using the Crossref XML Export Plugin and then submit it to Crossref’s backend system using credentials assigned to Crossref registrants.

mEDRA uses a special configuration of the ONIX format called ONIX for DOI (O4DOI). This is a simplified version of the ONIX for Serials format with additional fields specific to the DOI registration use case. Detailed documentation of the format can be found on the mEDRA home page. mEDRA supports registration of OJS issues, articles and galleys but not supplementary files. mEDRA provides an asynchronous web service for automated DOI registration that is integrated into OJS. The asynchronous nature of the mEDRA registration service means that registration success or error messages are delivered via email. In the (unlikely) case of a registration failure, some manual work is necessary to synchronize the OJS registration state with that of the mEDRA database, see “Reset DOI registration state” below.

DataCite developed their own XML format for DOI registration that is loosely coupled to the Dublin Core format but imposes a stronger specification than the DC format. The format is relatively easy to read for non-technical users. DataCite offers a synchronous web service for automated DOI registration that is integrated into OJS. The synchronous nature of the DataCite registration service means that the OJS registration state can easily be kept in sync with the DataCite database. Other than in the case of mEDRA, manual synchronization of the registration state in OJS is therefore not necessary.

OJS’ implementation of the Crossref, O4DOI and DataCite formats has been optimized for maximum information content and data quality. OJS has co-operated directly with these three registration agencies to make sure that their formats and protocols are correctly implemented and that the agencies can make best use of your data.

 

 

2. OJS DOI Integration
2. OJS DOI Integration
3. OJS DOI Registration
3. OJS DOI Registration

The Crossref Export/Registration Plugin can deposit DOIs to the Crossref database for consideration and acceptance. This can be accomplished in an entirely automatic fashion; manually through OJS; or completely externally to OJS if need be.

Configuring OJS 3.x for Automatic Deposits


  1. Ensure that all Journal Setup steps that the Crossref plugin requires have been filled in. Under Journal Setup Step 1, you will need the following:
    • Journal Title.
      Journal Initials.
      Journal Abbreviation.
      Journal ISSN (or electronic ISSN).
      Principal Contact (name and email).
      Journal Title.
      Journal Initials.
      Technical Support Contact (name and email).
      Journal ISSN (or electronic ISSN).
      Publisher (Institution and URL).

  2. Enable and configure the DOI Plugin.
  3. Ensure that your articles have DOIs assigned to them.
  4. Ensure that page numbers are present for the articles you are submitting (see Schedule for Publication).
  5. Configure the Crossref Deposit Plugin. This can be done from Import/Export -> Crossref Export/Registration Plugin.
    • The plugin will tell you whether the overall system requirements have been satisfied [1].
      If you have your Crossref login credentials, you can supply them here and enable automatic DOI deposit [2].
      You can select production option or choose CrossRef test API (testing environment) for automatic DOI deposit [3].

If you have configured the plugin to work automatically, OJS will deposit DOIs as they are created without your intervention. You can check the Articles page to confirm that DOIs have been deposited.

Configuring OJS 3.x for Manual Deposits


  1. Ensure that all Journal Setup steps that the Crossref plugin requires have been filled in. Under Journal Setup Step 1, you will need the following:
    • Journal Title.
      Journal Initials.
      Journal Abbreviation.
      Journal ISSN (or electronic ISSN).
      Principal Contact (name and email).
      Journal Title.
      Journal Initials.
      Technical Support Contact (name and email).
      Journal ISSN (or electronic ISSN).
      Publisher (Institution and URL).

  2. Enable and configure the DOI Plugin.
  3. Ensure that your articles have DOIs assigned to them.
  4. Ensure that page numbers are present for the articles you are submitting (see Schedule for Publication).
  5. If you have not configured the plugin to deposit DOIs automatically, you can register them manually yourself by using the “Submit” button on the Articles page. For best results, submit a small amount of DOIs at a time. Registration can take a while for large uploads to Crossref servers. Large batch uploads are likely better performed via XML Export. You can also check the status of registration for any of the articles.
  6. You can also export batch XML files to upload via the Crossref backend. From the Crossref plugin you can use the “Download XML” button on the Articles page. You’ll be asked where you’d like to save the XML. You can then navigate to the Crossref backend, login with your credentials, and upload your XML from there. Here are the steps:
    • Export from OJS by selecting the articles you’d like to export and clicking the Download XML button.
      Save the XML file locally.
      Navigate to Crossref’s metadata quality check and upload your file here first to check for any validation errors.
      Login to your Crossref member backend.
      Click on the Submissions tab.
      Click on “choose file” and select your XML export file. Make sure that “metadata” is selected below, and click upload.

    You should receive an email to let you know the status of your submission, provided you are listed as the “technical support contact” of your journal. You can change the submitter email name and ID in the XML before you export, if you like.