Abstracting and Indexing

OJS Security
OJS Security
Abstracting and Indexing
How Digital Publishers Benefit from HTML?

The digital revolution has changed the way scientists carry out their research and process and store their results. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Portable Document Format (PDF) came into existence 15 to 20 years ago as alternatives to paper articles. Both have their place in publishing; however, HTML has increasingly become the standard for online use as it is more in tune with developments in the research process.

PDF is a wonderful format for print publishing and remains the preferred format for archiving and offline use. It has saved countless hours and dollars in publication management, from design to the printed page, and it has its own place as a design-to-press tool. However, the web is about searching, linking, chunking, and, increasingly in a mobile world, responsiveness. Users prefer the sharable and interactive aspects of HTML.

What Is HTML?

HTML is a globally accepted programming language for formatting web pages. An HTML file typically contains only text, but it has the ability to reference images and multimedia, as well as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) for layout and JavaScript for interactive functionality. The newest version is HTML5.

The elements of web pages – such as the appearance of images, links, headings, text, and page layout – can be formatted through HTML. While there are other web-programming languages and tools, like content management systems, HTML continues to be the predominant programming language for creating web pages.

Advantages of Using HTML in Publishing

HTML has many advantages over other publishing options currently available:

  1. It is search engine, browser, and mobile friendly.
  2. HTML was specifically designed for screen viewing giving it a more pleasing on-screen appearance than the more printer focused PDFs.
  3. It has enriched interactive content.
  4. It is easy to share by link (even when a file is large).
  5. It contains up-to-date and linked content.
  6. It is linked with data repositories.
  7. It can include supplementary material.
  8. It has a smaller file size than PDFs allowing for a more direct translation of the content.
  9. It uses progressive loading enabling access to the content as it’s viewed rather than waiting until everything is loaded.
  10. It allows for selectable text, and even when text is rendered as an image, alternate text can be provided for screen readers.

Search Engines Favor HTML

If your HTML code is clean and validated, an HTML-based article is the easiest format for search-engine crawlers to access and read.

First, HTML tells search engines’ searchbots, such as GoogleBot, to find items such as images, videos, scripts, and style sheets and to index your content. Having an article that is semantically coded could be the nudge your publishing needs to increase the ability and accuracy of indexing. (Semantic coding describes the content [e.g., a first-level heading] rather than the appearance [e.g., boldface]).

Second, the meta tags in your HTML article give search engines information about your web page when they index it. Meta tags are little bits of text that describe your webpage’s content.

Finally, HTML5 allows for indexing of multimedia content, such as menus, audio, and video, with new markup tags. This reduces crawling time and improves page load time, which can boost your website in the search engine result pages (SERPs).

PDFs can be indexed by search engines, but they lack the tag structure that ranks content for target keywords. PDFs also are not effective for image search engine optimization (SEO).

Browsers Support HTML

More browsers support HTML than any other web-programming language. So, when you build a website using HTML, it shows up on most browsers worldwide, as long as the programmer optimizes the website for the most commonly used browsers. Optimizing HTML-based content for browser compatibility is straightforward.

PDFs require plugins to be read, and these plugins are often incompatible with web browsers.

Mobile Optimization with HTML

HTML is mobile friendly, which is important since there are many types of mobile devices. In contrast, it’s nearly impossible to provide a responsive design for a PDF opened using a mobile device.

Flexibility, Usability, Customization, and Development of HTML

You want dynamic content that allows the user to interact with it instead of just looking at it. HTML, particularly HTML5, can transform how users interact with your content. It gives you the power to create content that can be accessed anywhere, whenever it’s most convenient for the reader. It even supports offline storage, so your readers can access it at a later time without connecting to the Internet.

HTML content also brings people back to your site by allowing you to bookmark the URL for later review, share the link in SM, and it is easier to share via social media, which means your material can be freely promoted and shared by the public (earned media).

Furthermore, HTML content can be rendered quickly by users across devices. (Rendering occurs when the HTML coding is turned into what the user sees [e.g., “<b>” is set as boldface type].) If set up properly, users can still print the content to PDF if they wish to store it.

Another major advantage of HTML is that it is free. Unlike with some open source content management systems, you do not need to buy software or plugins, so you can save considerably on your website-development costs.

Almost everyone in web development – whether a freelancer or a large agency – knows HTML. It’s not hard to find providers who can cost-effectively update your content.

HTML can also be customized easily. There are more web-development tools (e.g., FrontPage, DreamWeaver) that allow you to create HTML-based publishing content than for any other web-programming language. HTML is relatively inexpensive to produce and in many cases the cost of distribution (such as website dissemination, sharing, offline storage, and views) is ZERO.

Works Cited or Consulted

Aalbersberg IJ. PDF versus HTML — which do researchers prefer? [Internet] Elsevier [Cited 25 Apr 2017] Available at: https://www.elsevier.com/connect/pdf-versus-html-which-do-researchers-prefer Advantages of HTML. [Internet] Vtech SEO. [Cited 25 Apr 2017] Available at:
http://www.vtech-seo.com/web-design-articles/advantages-of-html.html

Boag P. Semantic code. What? Why? How? [Internet]. Boagworks and Boagworld. 2005 [cited 24 Apr 2017]. Available at:
https://boagworld.com/dev/semantic-code-what-why-how/

Driscoll Miller J. Are PDFs optimal for SEO? The pros and cons. [Internet] Search Engine Land 2014 [Cited 25 Apr 2017]. Available at:
http://searchengineland.com/are-pdfs-optimal-for-seo-182076

Huntley S and Zender C. PDFs vs. HTML. Can’t we all just get along? [Internet] SAS Institute [Cited 25 Apr 2017]. Available at:
https://support.sas.com/resources/papers/proceedings14/SAS038-2014.pdf

Lohman T. Time to break up with pdfs? [Internet] AccessIQ. 2014 [Cited 25 Apr 2017]. Available at:
http://www.accessiq.org/news/news/2014/05/time-to-break-up-with-pdfs

Meta tags: how Google meta tags impact SEO. [Internet]. WordStream [cited 24 Apr 2017]. Available at:
http://www.wordstream.com/meta-tags

McBurnett N. PDF vs HTML. [Internet] Boulder Community Network 2008 [Cited 25 Apr 2017]. Available at:
http://bcn.boulder.co.us/~neal/pdf-vs-html.html

Putney J. 10 reasons to consider HTML for digital publishing + Getting started [Internet] LinkedIn Corporation. 2014 [Cited Apr 25 2017]. Available at:
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/10-reasons-consider-html-digital-publishing-getting-started-putney

What does it mean to “render” as web page? [Internet] PathInteractive [cited 24 Apr 2017]. Available at:
http://www.pathinteractive.com/blog/design-development/rendering-a-webpage-with-google-webmaster-tools/

Abstracting and Indexing
Abstracting and Indexing
Publishing
Publishing
How Digital Publishers Benefit from HTML?

The digital revolution has changed the way scientists carry out their research and process and store their results. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Portable Document Format (PDF) came into existence 15 to 20 years ago as alternatives to paper articles. Both have their place in publishing; however, HTML has increasingly become the standard for online use as it is more in tune with developments in the research process.

PDF is a wonderful format for print publishing and remains the preferred format for archiving and offline use. It has saved countless hours and dollars in publication management, from design to the printed page, and it has its own place as a design-to-press tool. However, the web is about searching, linking, chunking, and, increasingly in a mobile world, responsiveness. Users prefer the sharable and interactive aspects of HTML.

What Is HTML?

HTML is a globally accepted programming language for formatting web pages. An HTML file typically contains only text, but it has the ability to reference images and multimedia, as well as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) for layout and JavaScript for interactive functionality. The newest version is HTML5.

The elements of web pages – such as the appearance of images, links, headings, text, and page layout – can be formatted through HTML. While there are other web-programming languages and tools, like content management systems, HTML continues to be the predominant programming language for creating web pages.

Advantages of Using HTML in Publishing

HTML has many advantages over other publishing options currently available:

  1. It is search engine, browser, and mobile friendly.
  2. HTML was specifically designed for screen viewing giving it a more pleasing on-screen appearance than the more printer focused PDFs.
  3. It has enriched interactive content.
  4. It is easy to share by link (even when a file is large).
  5. It contains up-to-date and linked content.
  6. It is linked with data repositories.
  7. It can include supplementary material.
  8. It has a smaller file size than PDFs allowing for a more direct translation of the content.
  9. It uses progressive loading enabling access to the content as it’s viewed rather than waiting until everything is loaded.
  10. It allows for selectable text, and even when text is rendered as an image, alternate text can be provided for screen readers.

Search Engines Favor HTML

If your HTML code is clean and validated, an HTML-based article is the easiest format for search-engine crawlers to access and read.

First, HTML tells search engines’ searchbots, such as GoogleBot, to find items such as images, videos, scripts, and style sheets and to index your content. Having an article that is semantically coded could be the nudge your publishing needs to increase the ability and accuracy of indexing. (Semantic coding describes the content [e.g., a first-level heading] rather than the appearance [e.g., boldface]).

Second, the meta tags in your HTML article give search engines information about your web page when they index it. Meta tags are little bits of text that describe your webpage’s content.

Finally, HTML5 allows for indexing of multimedia content, such as menus, audio, and video, with new markup tags. This reduces crawling time and improves page load time, which can boost your website in the search engine result pages (SERPs).

PDFs can be indexed by search engines, but they lack the tag structure that ranks content for target keywords. PDFs also are not effective for image search engine optimization (SEO).

Browsers Support HTML

More browsers support HTML than any other web-programming language. So, when you build a website using HTML, it shows up on most browsers worldwide, as long as the programmer optimizes the website for the most commonly used browsers. Optimizing HTML-based content for browser compatibility is straightforward.

PDFs require plugins to be read, and these plugins are often incompatible with web browsers.

Mobile Optimization with HTML

HTML is mobile friendly, which is important since there are many types of mobile devices. In contrast, it’s nearly impossible to provide a responsive design for a PDF opened using a mobile device.

Flexibility, Usability, Customization, and Development of HTML

You want dynamic content that allows the user to interact with it instead of just looking at it. HTML, particularly HTML5, can transform how users interact with your content. It gives you the power to create content that can be accessed anywhere, whenever it’s most convenient for the reader. It even supports offline storage, so your readers can access it at a later time without connecting to the Internet.

HTML content also brings people back to your site by allowing you to bookmark the URL for later review, share the link in SM, and it is easier to share via social media, which means your material can be freely promoted and shared by the public (earned media).

Furthermore, HTML content can be rendered quickly by users across devices. (Rendering occurs when the HTML coding is turned into what the user sees [e.g., “<b>” is set as boldface type].) If set up properly, users can still print the content to PDF if they wish to store it.

Another major advantage of HTML is that it is free. Unlike with some open source content management systems, you do not need to buy software or plugins, so you can save considerably on your website-development costs.

Almost everyone in web development – whether a freelancer or a large agency – knows HTML. It’s not hard to find providers who can cost-effectively update your content.

HTML can also be customized easily. There are more web-development tools (e.g., FrontPage, DreamWeaver) that allow you to create HTML-based publishing content than for any other web-programming language. HTML is relatively inexpensive to produce and in many cases the cost of distribution (such as website dissemination, sharing, offline storage, and views) is ZERO.

Works Cited or Consulted

Aalbersberg IJ. PDF versus HTML — which do researchers prefer? [Internet] Elsevier [Cited 25 Apr 2017] Available at: https://www.elsevier.com/connect/pdf-versus-html-which-do-researchers-prefer Advantages of HTML. [Internet] Vtech SEO. [Cited 25 Apr 2017] Available at:
http://www.vtech-seo.com/web-design-articles/advantages-of-html.html

Boag P. Semantic code. What? Why? How? [Internet]. Boagworks and Boagworld. 2005 [cited 24 Apr 2017]. Available at:
https://boagworld.com/dev/semantic-code-what-why-how/

Driscoll Miller J. Are PDFs optimal for SEO? The pros and cons. [Internet] Search Engine Land 2014 [Cited 25 Apr 2017]. Available at:
http://searchengineland.com/are-pdfs-optimal-for-seo-182076

Huntley S and Zender C. PDFs vs. HTML. Can’t we all just get along? [Internet] SAS Institute [Cited 25 Apr 2017]. Available at:
https://support.sas.com/resources/papers/proceedings14/SAS038-2014.pdf

Lohman T. Time to break up with pdfs? [Internet] AccessIQ. 2014 [Cited 25 Apr 2017]. Available at:
http://www.accessiq.org/news/news/2014/05/time-to-break-up-with-pdfs

Meta tags: how Google meta tags impact SEO. [Internet]. WordStream [cited 24 Apr 2017]. Available at:
http://www.wordstream.com/meta-tags

McBurnett N. PDF vs HTML. [Internet] Boulder Community Network 2008 [Cited 25 Apr 2017]. Available at:
http://bcn.boulder.co.us/~neal/pdf-vs-html.html

Putney J. 10 reasons to consider HTML for digital publishing + Getting started [Internet] LinkedIn Corporation. 2014 [Cited Apr 25 2017]. Available at:
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/10-reasons-consider-html-digital-publishing-getting-started-putney

What does it mean to “render” as web page? [Internet] PathInteractive [cited 24 Apr 2017]. Available at:
http://www.pathinteractive.com/blog/design-development/rendering-a-webpage-with-google-webmaster-tools/

Publishing
Publishing
Commentary

This blog is in response to defamatory blog posts by Public Knowledge Project managing director Brian Owen with the intent to smear, harass, and intimidate OpenJournalSystems.com, a minority owned business in Phoenix, Arizona, for competing with PKP Services. Public Knowledge Project also utilizes its forum to further harass and bully our company by referring any inquiries about OpenJournalSystems.com to these defamatory blog posts 1.

Since it’s launch in 2013, OpenJournalSystems.com has been subject to multiple smear campaigns by Canadian Public Knowledge Project. The implication of these predatory tactics by Canadian Public Knowledge Project goes far beyond OpenJournalSystems.com; the intent is to deter any company wishing to compete with PKP Services and making sure PKP Services 2 holds a total monopoly over OJS commercial services.

Up until 2013, PKP Publishing Services held a monopoly over managed hosting and support for OJS. PKP took advantage of this monopoly by charging an exorbitant rate for its services. For example, a publisher with 9 titles and a 15-GB disk-space requirement, would have to pay $2700 per title to PKP Publishing Services for journal hosting.

As OpenJournalSystems.com started gaining market share bit by bit, PKP began launching vicious attacks against our company.
Over the past four years, PKP and its representatives have engaged in a pattern of conduct that appears to have one sole purpose – eliminate OpenJournalSystems.com as a competitor in the OJS platform. This has been a concerted effort on the part of PKP, its representatives, and its affiliated companies and vendors to engage in defamation and to interfere with OpenJournalSystems.com’s business through attacks on social media and on other forums. OpenJournalSystems.com has been subjected to continuous harassment and cyberbullying from PKP. Since 2013, PKP has blocked our access to its forum to try and maintain a monopoly on OJS services; created multiple websites directed at our CEO for the purpose of intimidation and defamation; and directed hundreds of baseless, defamatory social media attacks against OpenJournalSystems.com in an attempt to damage our reputation. Full details are available in ourcease and desist demand letter.

PKP Use of Legal Threats to Bully and Intimidate OpenJournalSystems.com


Fact: Since 2014, PKP has engaged in overly aggressive litigious behavior in order to bully and intimidate OpenJournalSystems.com.

In April 2014, PKP hired a trademark law firm to threaten OpenJournalSystems.com with a lawsuit if our company didn’t hand over the domain OpenJournalSystems.com and our social media accounts, etc.

In January 2017, PKP hired another law firm, threatening OpenJournalSystems.com with a baseless lawsuit over copyright violation for the use of the OJS user guide.

This is especially egregious as OpenJournalSystems.com spends thousands of dollars in the development of new, high-quality themes and plugins for OJS (which are copyright) but astonishingly, PKP’s forum allows others who’ve pirated our theme codes to create posts with links to these illegally obtained themes.

OpenJournalSystems.com had to spend tens of thousands of dollars in legal fees to deal with PKP’s frivolous legal threats.

PKP’s False Trademark Infringement Claims


Fact: United State Patent and Trademark office (USPTO) rejected PKP’s application for Trademark in United States.3

Fact: In April 2018, OpenJournalSystems.com offered PKP the domain name in return for a non disparagement agreement to stop any further harassment by PKP and their supporters. PKP refused the offer.

In the United States, to be able to trademark a name, you need to show that the mark you want to register is trademarkable; the use of a name does not by itself qualify for trademark ownership. The applicant must illustrate (1) the name is not generic, and (2) the name is not merely descriptive.4

Therefore, the use of a name does not automatically entitle the owner of a product to claim a trademark unless those 2 conditions are met. For instance, if you sell spring bottled water and your product is simply called “water,” you won’t be able to obtain trademark for your product.

In 2014, PKP applied to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to register Open Journal Systems as a trademark; however, PKP’s application for trademark of Open Journal Systems was rejected by USPTO as the term Open Journal Systems is generic.5

In 2014, OpenJournalSystems.com applied to USPTO for a logo that incorporates the words “Open Journal Systems” in order to protect itself against legal threats by PKP. USPTO granted OpenJournalSystems.com’s request. PKP had a chance to object, but decided not to do so!

Therefore, Paxter LLC, the parent company of OpenJournalSystems.com, is the owner of a registration for a design mark incorporating the OPEN JOURNAL SYSTEMS term (Ser. No. 86492962) 6 and is, in fact, the only entity at this point in time with any arguable claim to federal rights in any trademark including the OPEN JOURNAL SYSTEMS term. In contrast, the Public Knowledge Program connected to Simon Fraser University (“SFU-PKP”) has NO federally registered trademark rights in United States – and arguably no common-law trademark rights – in the OPEN JOURNAL SYSTEMS term.

PKP Use of Targeted Harassment and Smear Campaigns to Bully OpenJournalSystems.com


Fact: Since 2014, there has been over 200 instances of social media attacks by PKP and their associates against OpenJournalSystems.com.

Following the USPTO ruling and PKP’s failure to secure a trademark for Open Journal Systems in United States, PKP started multiple smear campaigns against OpenJournalSystems.com. We were, slandered, ridiculed, provoked, and accused.

The Pattern of the Smear Campaigns by PKP

All the campaigns so far have had a similar pattern: each starts with a smear blog, followed by PKP posting the smear blog on social media and asking their associates to retweet and provide support for it. This is followed by coordinated attacks on Twitter and Facebook by PKP’s Canadian associates, and it concludes with PKP thanking their associates for their support following the attack.

These perpetrators are not ordinary folks making simple criticisms. They are the agents of PKP, who are taking advantage of the differences in legal jurisdictions to carry out their attacks and benefit PKP by spreading a false and derogatory narrative to damage our company.

The Profile of Attackers

We have compiled a profile of these attackers who are acting as agents for PKP and the common denominator for these perpetrators are:

  1. almost all are Canadians,
  2. they all work for Canadian Universities,
  3. they all have high number of followers on Twitter,
  4. they’re all close associates of John Willinsky and PKP.

The Ring Leaders

  1. Jacqueline Appleby: librarian at University of Toronto, Canada (see cease and desist letter)
  2. Karen-Majer Kline: ex-communication officer at PKP, Canada (see cease and desist letter)
  3. Nick Ruest: archivist at York University, Canada
  4. Dale Askey: librarian at McMaster University, Canada (previously sued by Edwin Mellen Press for defamation)
  5. George Siemens: educator at Athabasca University, Canada
  6. D’Arcy Norman: manager technology integration at University of Alberta, Canada
  7. Dave Cormier: student relations management at University of Prince Edward Island, Canada
  8. Sara Allain: archivist at University of Toronto, Canada
  9. Amy Buckland: archivist at University of Guelph, Canada

The people listed above all have a high number of Twitter followers. So, once they create their defamatory posts, multiple retweets from their followers follow, causing maximum exposure. For instance, a post by a close associate of PKP, George Siemens, stated: “@OpenJournalSys are a shady and unethical operation.” Please note that George Siemens is a close friend of John Willisnky, the director of PKP. Also note that George Siemens has never conducted any business dealings with our company before or offered any proof to back up these absurd statements. As well, Dale Askey has been sued previously by Edwin Mellen Press for defamation, so these attacks seem to be their usual tactics.

Final Notes


According to Software Freedom Law Center: “Way down in the roots of Software Freedom are the same ideas from which the belief in free speech derives. Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS) projects are not often built by people who value censorship, and there is a strong belief within most FOSS communities that projects should thrive on their merits, and not use legal weapons to silence critics and competitors.” 7

By using legal threats against their competitor, PKP has demonstrated that their business practice it is not aligned with the spirit of FOSS!

PKP acted with deliberate premeditation with the intent to eliminate OpenJournalSystems.com as a competitor in the OJS platform. The legal threats, targeted harassment, and defamation by PKP and their associates against OpenJournalSystems.com are to ensure that PKP Publishing Services retain its monopoly over OJS services and its ability to continue with its exorbitant hosting charges.

References